Medicine Price Index

At Medbelle, we’ve seen first-hand how digitisation can make high-quality medical care more accessible for everyone. While conducting research into the cities with the best hospital systems, we became aware that one of the biggest disparities across the world when it comes to access to care is the price of medicine. This lead us to commission a study in order to help shed light on this imbalance, in the hope that addressing this important global issue will provide a pathway to greater medical accessibility. The result is a comparative index across 50 countries which reveals the differences in cost of some of the most widely recognised and indispensable medications.

We began the study by selecting thirteen prevalent pharmaceutical compounds in order to make a comparison on a pound-for-pound basis of how much medicines cost in different countries, regardless of whether covered by a healthcare system, or paid directly from the individual’s pocket. The medications chosen for comparison span a variety of common conditions; from heart disease and asthma, to anxiety disorders and erectile dysfunction. The average prices of both the brand compound and their generic versions were included in order to have a complete profile of each medication. Lastly, we normalised the dosage size in order to make the price comparable.

Once all these figures were collected, we were able to calculate the median price for each compound around the world, as well as how far the actual price per dose in each country deviates from the median global cost.

The final index compares costs and deviations from the average to reveal the differences in medication prices worldwide.

Below you will find three tables. The first table shows a calculation based on the average deviations of the available medicines. The average of original and generic price for each medicine was determined and compared with the median of averages for each medicine. The total columns show the average of the deviations of all medications for each country. The deviation presented in the first table is not sensitive to the cost of each medications, such that expensive and cheap medications contribute equally to the total. Each column is filterable, from highest to lowest, and vice versa.

The calculation in the second table uses a different approach for calculating the total price level. The average of the original and generic price was determined and compared with the median price of all original and generic prices for each medicine. The total column shows the deviation of the country average from the median of all country averages. The deviation presented in the second table is sensitive to the cost of each medication, such that more expensive medications have a greater impact on the total than cheaper medications. The difference in how the total is calculated in this table versus the first table is explained in more detail in the methodology. Each column is filterable, from highest to lowest, and vice versa..

The third table features a drop down box where it is possible to select a drug, one at a time, to see its total deviation and the actual prices of both the original and generic compounds in each country.

Please note: due to differences in the availability of patents in each country, some locations in the table feature the price of the generic compounds only.

The full methodology explaining how the prices and deviations were calculated can be found at the bottom of the page.

Equal-weight medicine basket price index
ConditionErectile DysfunctionEpilepsy, Fibromyalgia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, among othersCardiovascular Disease, High CholesterolAsthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseBacterial InfectionDiabetes Type I and IIImmunosuppression, Transplant Rejection PreventionFemale ContraceptionDepression, Bulimia, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), among othersAnxiety and Panic DisorderHigh Blood PressureHepatitis B, HIV/AIDSArthritis, Bowel Disease, Skin Disorders, among others
Branded drugViagraLyricaLipitorVentolinZithromaxLantusPrografYasminProzacXanaxZestrilVireadHumiraTotal
Pharmaceutical CompoundSildenafilPregabalinAtorvastatinSalbutamolAzithromycinInsulin GlargineTacrolimusDrospirenone / EthinylestradiolFluoxetineAlprazolamLisinoprilTenofovirAdalimumabBranded DrugGeneric DrugBranded and Generic Drugs
% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median PriceAverage % Deviation from Median PriceAverage % Deviation from Median PriceAverage % Deviation from Median Price
#Country
1USA660.24%1071.17%2175.83%1191.01%1755.25%557.86%86.45%785.99%2124.89%2513.80%2682.56%217.02%482.91%1405.34%240.28%1254.23%
2Chile68.23%147.85%278.15%354.85%14.94%168.17%52.91%182.65%256.66%-77.19%434.16%154.85%20.02%142.85%91.44%158.17%
3Mexico4.82%54.96%277.38%198.52%224.03%53.32%36.57%47.05%322.76%437.76%234.57%40.53%10.39%125.98%110.53%149.44%
4Switzerland132.69%68.84%302.92%225.33%266.04%27.63%52.27%129.97%95.71%257.48%119.94%98.31%43.57%79.90%191.12%140.05%
5Iceland84.74%148.93%80.59%274.75%298.71%138.15%85.93%21.93%84.61%336.27%-131.35%-8.58%87.20%203.04%139.78%
6Germany82.09%199.89%256.92%272.56%206.99%36.35%165.41%121.59%77.86%180.80%-2.23%40.71%80.05%111.04%127.75%132.23%
7Colombia-69.85%-60.33%321.91%8.95%118.43%-29.55%-43.35%-33.02%618.57%191.96%590.78%-61.07%9.91%51.87%115.38%120.26%
8Philippines37.64%107.98%38.73%57.19%-15.75%17.58%110.56%21.66%293.97%305.09%355.05%-86.41%54.27%83.16%47.46%99.81%
9Qatar38.23%69.84%389.34%2.48%51.86%56.56%83.33%-21.64%201.40%-17.86%170.31%-99.19%39.27%233.46%93.59%
10Denmark56.90%148.80%249.23%61.67%-27.42%19.85%75.00%-28.41%0.40%91.76%354.85%121.08%37.19%65.87%69.40%89.30%
11Japan108.26%109.26%83.27%79.56%93.30%2.23%142.09%371.78%--42.14%22.65%30.07%25.28%63.41%78.97%85.47%
12Israel34.45%109.94%-22.91%48.11%-6.90%41.31%192.54%46.93%-12.86%317.86%19.20%200.32%92.57%32.17%181.71%81.58%
13United Arab Emirates-23.70%32.29%251.61%-1.56%9.83%50.78%34.39%-35.56%160.33%66.19%187.35%147.71%80.30%54.79%43.13%73.84%
14Brazil-22.96%85.32%159.74%37.40%16.04%44.34%-61.83%54.49%81.39%174.34%171.60%-59.32%135.27%55.30%19.52%62.76%
15Malaysia61.04%132.49%115.01%5.06%-76.63%27.74%49.11%31.65%174.35%19.09%119.44%--49.66%47.23%59.85%
16China21.00%184.46%203.72%3.27%-49.96%141.04%64.95%86.85%146.30%-84.24%57.08%-72.11%-48.58%29.07%63.45%50.29%
17Italy70.19%-2.26%133.85%-16.70%26.88%27.08%40.41%69.32%-12.51%177.37%42.41%22.46%61.19%28.56%52.63%49.21%
18Norway64.55%49.80%-9.23%67.93%70.64%-5.51%3.90%172.07%78.47%24.39%-16.39%109.75%26.00%4.72%117.29%48.95%
19Russia-7.43%4.53%-57.29%-56.54%-12.06%-28.54%-64.72%16.69%-24.57%980.15%-14.51%-62.84%-65.81%-37.33%66.15%46.70%
20Austria89.91%-20.03%15.38%148.62%79.84%68.49%27.03%40.91%116.59%-7.54%70.04%8.08%-35.32%8.89%79.07%46.31%
21Canada20.25%55.40%164.84%-4.79%17.63%0.77%-4.90%-17.39%135.11%120.77%48.69%35.40%25.10%35.57%1.77%45.91%
22Belgium53.58%-37.80%-18.46%133.61%69.35%-19.44%-34.30%10.23%95.07%252.71%36.03%-22.62%22.82%3.44%72.63%41.60%
23Argentina-81.42%38.39%167.39%46.66%-41.67%169.96%105.64%-20.87%78.23%-47.18%-3.85%27.39%86.13%16.53%46.84%40.37%
24Saudi Arabia-23.64%3.20%-17.52%-18.25%44.39%9.41%204.52%-45.14%135.23%-23.57%126.88%57.51%65.51%8.58%29.28%39.89%
25Kenya-29.54%18.93%83.84%-44.68%21.75%17.31%-74.13%-5.13%50.06%30.07%227.41%--16.81%3.07%26.90%
26Finland46.83%-0.04%113.85%3.74%-32.80%-1.18%38.08%14.77%-42.63%71.22%2.02%120.44%-7.24%13.47%40.21%25.16%
27Australia-62.02%-50.72%-63.97%8.89%92.84%143.45%-19.92%74.38%-46.08%212.33%-12.24%40.88%-1.89%-10.44%49.43%24.30%
28Spain84.55%84.38%1.54%-33.36%3.23%4.34%-30.23%44.32%-74.18%-45.21%-2.23%86.75%33.56%2.51%23.18%12.11%
29Taiwan152.18%16.30%82.81%-12.40%-64.10%13.29%94.94%59.16%-83.46%-55.28%-66.24%--4.92%-15.70%54.93%11.02%
30Czechia14.98%34.05%161.99%-19.42%-9.50%0.28%-6.10%6.07%-51.11%21.22%-41.22%40.80%-29.32%1.90%6.61%9.44%
31Portugal50.37%-8.92%129.23%-17.21%-9.41%-6.15%-17.44%-17.05%-56.97%-41.79%-23.48%67.21%24.91%-10.32%-10.07%5.64%
32Greece-9.87%-25.58%21.54%-47.75%259.14%-5.42%-47.09%-9.09%0.40%-38.36%-10.73%-6.95%-17.12%-3.43%1.68%4.85%
33Sweden46.95%65.30%12.41%38.11%-22.04%-14.56%18.03%-48.03%0.00%27.01%-45.86%-3.18%-44.04%-9.63%8.74%2.32%
34Indonesia-50.82%80.83%-86.44%112.72%-45.55%22.97%5.83%92.43%-16.83%63.42%-90.36%-82.78%-6.66%-29.95%0.45%
35UK-26.45%57.96%75.38%-14.68%-17.47%-28.26%-9.12%-43.57%-75.72%0.49%39.14%-27.89%-11.56%-8.34%-40.05%-6.29%
36Lithuania11.78%-0.04%-67.69%-9.51%-22.58%-22.15%-32.27%-4.55%-56.97%54.10%-23.48%51.37%-6.85%-9.84%-4.48%-9.91%
37France27.11%-25.58%-38.46%24.94%-10.22%-21.11%-4.94%-9.09%-18.24%-34.94%-17.11%15.59%-31.77%-27.51%3.92%-11.06%
38Hungary52.28%-14.08%-18.01%-1.76%44.24%-24.73%-47.84%-5.16%-29.12%-52.02%-53.26%24.01%-23.37%-14.05%-8.15%-11.45%
39Thailand40.26%24.04%-2.15%-46.18%-35.97%-3.65%85.50%-53.95%30.71%-77.54%-57.92%-83.88%--22.51%-56.08%-15.06%
40South Africa-76.40%-20.81%37.33%-14.11%70.64%-22.95%-9.23%-14.98%23.25%-12.66%-56.89%-91.62%-32.84%-22.52%-33.48%-17.02%
41Ireland-90.57%24.40%-50.77%22.42%-34.68%-21.88%11.05%13.64%-58.40%-38.36%-10.73%0.48%-10.74%-32.00%-10.11%-18.78%
42South Korea-14.25%-14.60%-13.99%-43.95%-55.28%-10.37%43.73%-9.29%-7.65%-45.47%18.23%-97.99%-13.69%-38.66%-2.69%-20.35%
43Bulgaria1.10%-68.20%-73.26%-11.72%26.45%-3.98%9.10%-16.33%-61.86%-78.99%8.67%-24.63%7.05%-23.07%-11.23%-22.05%
44Slovakia92.91%-61.12%-43.08%-9.51%-25.81%-20.84%-34.88%14.77%-71.31%-34.94%-61.74%-21.16%-23.76%-29.25%-14.84%-23.11%
45Egypt-89.24%-44.85%25.13%-68.32%-83.50%-43.51%-29.62%-73.18%-87.20%26.08%209.94%-80.24%-23.24%-18.78%-73.67%-27.83%
46Netherlands26.25%-47.80%-56.92%-5.35%-44.09%-11.84%2.62%-55.68%-91.39%-31.51%-63.87%-44.83%38.72%-25.33%-31.22%-29.67%
47Poland23.61%-66.77%-66.37%-27.89%-29.79%-30.29%-34.57%-37.76%-68.31%46.57%-56.96%-84.53%-36.27%-31.63%-39.03%-36.10%
48India-41.20%-91.13%-84.82%-64.76%-88.46%6.62%-87.46%-54.94%-84.43%-73.76%31.37%162.87%-74.20%-25.75%-62.62%-41.87%
49New Zealand-57.41%-93.63%-96.47%-29.08%-85.51%-2.01%-72.00%42.05%48.87%--90.25%-88.24%8.67%-22.65%-72.22%-42.92%
50Turkey14.82%-53.40%-53.24%-66.37%-52.33%-33.93%-61.94%-21.92%-62.53%-63.68%-60.29%-65.61%-51.99%-59.38%-30.47%-48.65%
Cost-weighted medicine price index
ConditionErectile DysfunctionEpilepsy, Fibromyalgia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, among othersCardiovascular Disease, High CholesterolAsthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseBacterial InfectionDiabetes Type I and IIImmunosuppression, Transplant Rejection PreventionFemale ContraceptionDepression, Bulimia, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), among othersAnxiety and Panic DisorderHigh Blood PressureHepatitis B, HIV/AIDSArthritis, Bowel Disease, Skin Disorders, among others
Branded drugViagraLyricaLipitorVentolinZithromaxLantusPrografYasminProzacXanaxZestrilVireadHumiraTotal
Pharmaceutical CompoundSildenafilPregabalinAtorvastatinSalbutamolAzithromycinInsulin GlargineTacrolimusDrospirenone / EthinylestradiolFluoxetineAlprazolamLisinoprilTenofovirAdalimumabBranded and Generic Drugs
% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price% Deviation from Median Price
#Country
1USA660.24%1071.17%2175.83%1191.01%1755.25%557.86%86.45%785.99%2124.89%2513.80%2682.56%217.02%482.91%306.82%
2Germany82.09%199.89%256.92%272.56%206.99%36.35%165.41%121.59%77.86%180.80%-2.23%40.71%80.05%125.64%
3UAE-23.70%32.29%251.61%-1.56%9.83%50.78%34.39%-35.56%160.33%66.19%187.35%147.71%80.30%122.03%
4Italy70.19%-2.26%133.85%-16.70%26.88%27.08%40.41%69.32%-12.51%177.37%42.41%22.46%61.19%90.36%
5Denmark56.90%148.80%249.23%61.67%-27.42%19.85%75.00%-28.41%0.40%91.76%354.85%121.08%37.19%79.53%
6Qatar38.23%69.84%389.34%2.48%51.86%56.56%83.33%-21.64%201.40%-17.86%170.31%-99.19%78.87%
7Spain84.55%84.38%1.54%-33.36%3.23%4.34%-30.23%44.32%-74.18%-45.21%-2.23%86.75%33.56%78.34%
8Netherlands26.25%-47.80%-56.92%-5.35%-44.09%-11.84%2.62%-55.68%-91.39%-31.51%-63.87%-44.83%38.72%75.01%
9Israel34.45%109.94%-22.91%48.11%-6.90%41.31%192.54%46.93%-12.86%317.86%19.20%200.32%92.57%56.44%
10Iceland84.74%148.93%80.59%274.75%298.71%138.15%85.93%21.93%84.61%336.27%-131.35%-8.58%56.01%
11Brazil-22.96%85.32%159.74%37.40%16.04%44.34%-61.83%54.49%81.39%174.34%171.60%-59.32%135.27%51.49%
12Lithuania11.78%-0.04%-67.69%-9.51%-22.58%-22.15%-32.27%-4.55%-56.97%54.10%-23.48%51.37%-6.85%31.99%
13Finland46.83%-0.04%113.85%3.74%-32.80%-1.18%38.08%14.77%-42.63%71.22%2.02%120.44%-7.24%28.99%
14Argentina-81.42%38.39%167.39%46.66%-41.67%169.96%105.64%-20.87%78.23%-47.18%-3.85%27.39%86.13%22.09%
15Saudi Arabia-23.64%3.20%-17.52%-18.25%44.39%9.41%204.52%-45.14%135.23%-23.57%126.88%57.51%65.51%18.81%
16Ireland-90.57%24.40%-50.77%22.42%-34.68%-21.88%11.05%13.64%-58.40%-38.36%-10.73%0.48%-10.74%14.60%
17Philippines37.64%107.98%38.73%57.19%-15.75%17.58%110.56%21.66%293.97%305.09%355.05%-86.41%54.27%12.64%
18New Zealand-57.41%-93.63%-96.47%-29.08%-85.51%-2.01%-72.00%42.05%48.87%--90.25%-88.24%8.67%10.37%
19Japan108.26%109.26%83.27%79.56%93.30%2.23%142.09%371.78%--42.14%22.65%30.07%25.28%9.56%
20UK-26.45%57.96%75.38%-14.68%-17.47%-28.26%-9.12%-43.57%-75.72%0.49%39.14%-27.89%-11.56%9.18%
21Switzerland132.69%68.84%302.92%225.33%266.04%27.63%52.27%129.97%95.71%257.48%119.94%98.31%43.57%5.00%
22Greece-9.87%-25.58%21.54%-47.75%259.14%-5.42%-47.09%-9.09%0.40%-38.36%-10.73%-6.95%-17.12%4.75%
23Slovakia92.91%-61.12%-43.08%-9.51%-25.81%-20.84%-34.88%14.77%-71.31%-34.94%-61.74%-21.16%-23.76%4.19%
24Chile68.23%147.85%278.15%354.85%14.94%168.17%52.91%182.65%256.66%-77.19%434.16%154.85%20.02%2.02%
25Hungary52.28%-14.08%-18.01%-1.76%44.24%-24.73%-47.84%-5.16%-29.12%-52.02%-53.26%24.01%-23.37%1.64%
26Czechia14.98%34.05%161.99%-19.42%-9.50%0.28%-6.10%6.07%-51.11%21.22%-41.22%40.80%-29.32%-1.64%
27Norway64.55%49.80%-9.23%67.93%70.64%-5.51%3.90%172.07%78.47%24.39%-16.39%109.75%26.00%-5.26%
28Austria89.91%-20.03%15.38%148.62%79.84%68.49%27.03%40.91%116.59%-7.54%70.04%8.08%-35.32%-10.75%
29Belgium53.58%-37.80%-18.46%133.61%69.35%-19.44%-34.30%10.23%95.07%252.71%36.03%-22.62%22.82%-12.79%
30Poland23.61%-66.77%-66.37%-27.89%-29.79%-30.29%-34.57%-37.76%-68.31%46.57%-56.96%-84.53%-36.27%-13.72%
31Bulgaria1.10%-68.20%-73.26%-11.72%26.45%-3.98%9.10%-16.33%-61.86%-78.99%8.67%-24.63%7.05%-14.50%
32France27.11%-25.58%-38.46%24.94%-10.22%-21.11%-4.94%-9.09%-18.24%-34.94%-17.11%15.59%-31.77%-15.63%
33Portugal50.37%-8.92%129.23%-17.21%-9.41%-6.15%-17.44%-17.05%-56.97%-41.79%-23.48%67.21%24.91%-15.76%
34Mexico4.82%54.96%277.38%198.52%224.03%53.32%36.57%47.05%322.76%437.76%234.57%40.53%10.39%-17.47%
35Canada20.25%55.40%164.84%-4.79%17.63%0.77%-4.90%-17.39%135.11%120.77%48.69%35.40%25.10%-17.58%
36Taiwan152.18%16.30%82.81%-12.40%-64.10%13.29%94.94%59.16%-83.46%-55.28%-66.24%--4.92%-18.29%
37Sweden46.95%65.30%12.41%38.11%-22.04%-14.56%18.03%-48.03%0.00%27.01%-45.86%-3.18%-44.04%-23.19%
38Colombia-69.85%-60.33%321.91%8.95%118.43%-29.55%-43.35%-33.02%618.57%191.96%590.78%-61.07%9.91%-24.01%
39China21.00%184.46%203.72%3.27%-49.96%141.04%64.95%86.85%146.30%-84.24%57.08%-72.11%-48.58%-24.82%
40Australia-62.02%-50.72%-63.97%8.89%92.84%143.45%-19.92%74.38%-46.08%212.33%-12.24%40.88%-1.89%-25.05%
41South Korea-14.25%-14.60%-13.99%-43.95%-55.28%-10.37%43.73%-9.29%-7.65%-45.47%18.23%-97.99%-13.69%-33.98%
42Egypt-89.24%-44.85%25.13%-68.32%-83.50%-43.51%-29.62%-73.18%-87.20%26.08%209.94%-80.24%-23.24%-38.67%
43Turkey14.82%-53.40%-53.24%-66.37%-52.33%-33.93%-61.94%-21.92%-62.53%-63.68%-60.29%-65.61%-51.99%-41.57%
44Russia-7.43%4.53%-57.29%-56.54%-12.06%-28.54%-64.72%16.69%-24.57%980.15%-14.51%-62.84%-65.81%-51.92%
45South Africa-76.40%-20.81%37.33%-14.11%70.64%-22.95%-9.23%-14.98%23.25%-12.66%-56.89%-91.62%-32.84%-53.72%
46India-41.20%-91.13%-84.82%-64.76%-88.46%6.62%-87.46%-54.94%-84.43%-73.76%31.37%162.87%-74.20%-73.82%
47Indonesia-50.82%80.83%-86.44%112.72%-45.55%22.97%5.83%92.43%-16.83%63.42%-90.36%-82.78%--90.23%
48Malaysia61.04%132.49%115.01%5.06%-76.63%27.74%49.11%31.65%174.35%19.09%119.44%---90.80%
49Kenya-29.54%18.93%83.84%-44.68%21.75%17.31%-74.13%-5.13%50.06%30.07%227.41%---93.76%
50Thailand40.26%24.04%-2.15%-46.18%-35.97%-3.65%85.50%-53.95%30.71%-77.54%-57.92%-83.88%--93.93%
% Deviation from Median Price and Branded and Generic Price per Dose for all Compounds
All currency figures are in GBP.
Condition
Branded drug
Pharmaceutical Compound
% Deviation from Median PriceBranded Drug Price/DoseGeneric Drug Price/Dose
#Country

Methodology

The 2019 Medicine Price Index compares and analyses the cost of medicine around the world. The study takes a comprehensive look into the cost of 13 prevalent medications, examining the average price per dose of both the original (brand name) drugs, and their generic versions. It also analyses how far the price of each medication deviates from the global median. The individual percentages are then aggregated to reveal the total deviation from the global median on a country level for all 13 medications. As a UK-based enterprise, the total deviations were calculated from the medicine price in GBP. Due to this, there may be minimal differences in the deviations in other currencies.

For the purposes of the study, the terms ‘branded drug’ (e.g. Viagra) and ‘generic drug’ (e.g. Sildenafil) were defined as follows according to the European Patients Academy on Therapeutic Innovation (EUPATI) project: “Branded medicines are medicines which have a name given to them by a company for the purpose of advertising. The names of branded medicines are different from the International Nonproprietary Name (INN), also known as the generic name. Branded medicines may be the original medicine developed by a company or several companies may make the same generic medicine, to which each company gives its own brand name.”

Please note: due to differences in the availability of patents in each country, some locations in the table feature the price of the generic compounds only.

For each medication, we provide the “Deviation from Median price”, which is an average of the price of the brand name and generic versions compared to the median price of these medications worldwide.

When it came to summarizing the overall basket of medications in order to provide an overall country deviation from the worldwide norm, we explored a number of different approaches, out of which we settled on the conceptually simpler Approaches A and B:

  • Approach A: The average of the individual medication-deviations from the median price. This has the effect that all medications have the same impact on the final overall deviation regardless of how expensive the individual medication is.
  • Approach B: The average price of a basket of medications, assuming one unit of each medication. This has the effect that more expensive medications have a greater impact on the final overall deviation than cheaper medications.
  • Approach C: The average price of a basket of medications, taking into account the sales volumes of each medication in each specific country to adjust the impact of each medicine on the final average. While such an approach would be very useful in producing local comparison of the medication costs in each healthcare system, it would require a unique dataset for each country analyzed. We decided against this approach in favor of something more internationally comparable–however such country-specific datasets can be constructed using our data.

Using approaches A and B, we arrived at two tables. Table 1, titled “Equal-weight medicine basket price index”, uses approach A to summarize overall price levels; Table 2, titled “Cost-weighted medicine price index”, uses approach B. As approach B can present issues when calculating branded-only and generic-only summaries in cases where some versions of the medications are unavailable in some medicines, only a total summary of the combined branded and generic price levels were included in Table 2.

Below you can find a description of how each deviation was calculated, how the prices were collected, as well as each medication within the study and the sources used.

Calculation of Deviation:

Branded and Generic, Deviation from Median Price
Table 1:

In order to determine the deviation from the median price, the deviations of each available drug were averaged. The deviation from median is calculated using the following formula:

SUM(Deviation of drug prices from Median Price)/Number of available drugs
Table 2:

In order to determine the deviation from the median price, the average price of branded and generic drugs was calculated for every country. The deviation from median is calculated using the following formula:

(Xi - Median of all country averages)/Median of all country averages
Branded drugs, Deviation from Median Price
Table 1:

In order to determine the deviation from the median price, the deviations of each available branded drug were averaged. The deviation from median is calculated using the following formula:

SUM(Deviation of branded drug prices from Median Price)/Number of available branded drugs
Generic drugs, Deviation from Median Price
Table 1:

In order to determine the deviation from the median price, the deviations of each available generic drug were averaged. The deviation from median is calculated using the following formula:

SUM(Deviation of generic drug prices from Median Price)/Number of available generic drugs
Compounds, Deviation from Median Price

In order to determine the deviation from the median price, the median price for each compound (branded and generic drugs) was calculated. The deviation from median is calculated using the following formula:

(Average of Xbranded drug and Xgeneric drug - Median of all branded and generic prices for a compound)/Median of all branded and generic prices for a compound

Price Collection:

The price was collected from online pharmacies, governmental websites and information portals around the globe.

The prices for the branded and generic drugs were collected according to the profiles laid out in the section condition and compounds (below). If more than one generic drug was available, the drug with the cheapest regular price was chosen.

For the UK, in addition to the indicative price pharmacy fees, fees such as the single activity fee and the fee for controlled drugs were added to the price to enhance comparability.

Price per dose

The price calculated by 1 unit or 100g/ml of the medication, e.g. per tablet (100g), capsule (100ml), syringe (unit) or inhaler (unit).

Condition and Compounds

Erectile Dysfunction (Sildenafil)

Sildenafil is a compound used to treat erectile dysfunction.
The original brand is Viagra, manufactured by Pfizer.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength: 50 mg
Package size: 4 tablets
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Epilepsy, Fibromyalgia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, among others (Pregabalin)

Pregabalin is used to treat epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, restless leg syndrome, and generalized anxiety disorder.
The original brand is Lyrica, manufactured by Pfizer.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength: 75 mg
Package size: 30 capsules
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Cardiovascular Disease, High Cholesterol (Atorvastatin)

Atorvastatin is used to prevent cardiovascular disease.
The original brand is Lipitor, manufactured by Pfizer.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:20 mg
Package size:30 tablets
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Salbutamol)

Salbutamol (also known as Albutol) is used to treat asthma, including asthma attacks, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
The original brand is Ventolin, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:100 mcg per dose
Package size:1 inhaler (200 doses)
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Bacterial Infection (Azithromycin)

Azithromycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections including middle ear infections, strep throat, pneumonia, traveler's diarrhea, other intestinal infections and sexually transmitted infections (e.g. chlamydia and gonorrhea).
The original brand is Zithromax manufactured by Pfizer. In Eastern Europe, it is also known as Sumamed and is manufactured by Pliva.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:500 mg
Package size:3 tablets
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Diabetes Type I and II (Insulin Glargine)

Insulin Glargine is a long-acting Insulin used in the treatment of type I and type II diabetes.
The original brand is Lantus, manufactured by Sanofi-Aventis.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:100 Units per ml
Package size:5 pens with 3 ml
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Immunosuppression, Transplant Rejection Prevention (Tacrolimus)

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug which is used after organ transplantation to lower the risk of rejection.
The original brand is Prograf, manufactured by Astellas.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:1 mg
Package size:50 capsules
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Female Contraception (Drospirenone/Ethinylestradiol)

The birth control pill is used to prevent pregnancies.
The original brand is Yasmin, manufactured by Bayer.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:3 mg Drospirenone and 0.03 mg Ethinylestradiol
Package size:21 tablets. In some countries, the package contains 28 tablets, but 7 of them come without a compound.
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Depression, Bulimia, Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), among others (Fluoxetine)

Fluoxetine is an antidepressant used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and trichotillomania.
The original brand is Prozac, manufactured by Eli Lilly.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:20 mg
Package size:30 capsules
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Anxiety and Panic Disorder (Alprazolam)

Alprazolam is a benzodiazepine used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, specifically panic disorder or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
The original brand is Xanax, manufactured by Pfizer.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:1 mg
Package size:8 tablets
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

High Blood Pressure (Lisinopril)

Lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and after heart attacks.
The original brand is Zestril, manufactured by AstraZeneca.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:20 mg
Package size:28 tablets.
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS (Tenofovir)

Tenofovir disoproxil is a medication used to treat chronic hepatitis B and to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.
The original brand is Viread, manufactured by Gilead Sciences.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:245 mg
Package size:30 tablets
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.

Arthritis, Bowel Disease, Skin Disorders, among others (Adalimumab)

Adalimumab is a compound used to treat autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, uveitis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
The original brand is Humira, manufactured by AbbVie.
The generic drug in this case is not technically a generic drug, but a biosimilar.
Data was mainly collected for the following specifications:
Compound strength:40 ml per 0.4 ml solution
Package size:2 syringes
If this profile was unavailable in a country, the closest available compound strength and package size was used.